The development and implementation of the military operation for
liberation of Shushi and the settlements in Janhasan-Kyosalar subregion
marked the brilliant victory of the Armenian people’s unique military
thought, which became a baptism of fire for the Artsakh Self-Defense
Forces and for certain branches in particular.
The most vivid results of Shushi liberation were the annihilation of the
enemy’s reinforced foothold from which the non-combatants of Stepanakert,
and Armenian adjacent settlements were constantly exposed to rocket
artillery fire, and the recovery of the Lachin Humanitarian Corridor,
through which the blockaded Artsakh established a life-saving communication with Armenia.
In terms of strategy, timely and effectively repelling the enemy attacks
in some lines of defense in the administrative districts of Askeran,
Martakert and Hadrut, an extremely difficult task was successfully solved,
and the victory in Shushi was secured.
However, the historical significance of Shushi’s liberation should be
regarded not only in the context of Artsakh and even Armenia, but also in
the context of the entire Armenian world community.
This brilliant victory returned the Armenians the historic fortress city
that embodied the spiritual and cultural glorious past of the nation. The
liberation of Shushi put an end to Azerbaijan’s perennial policy of
appropriation of other people’s historical monuments and established
favourable conditions to restore them, to make them publicly available, a
particular evidence of which is the opening of the Persian Mosque in


On July 11, Minister of Education, Science and Culture of the Artsakh Republic Lusine Garakhanyan headed “Behavior of the Genocide in Azerbaijan”. The next meeting of the organizing committee of the international online conference “History and Contemporaneity (from legal and political assessment to the international court).” As we reported in previous publications, the conference was scheduled for March 22-25, 2020. The conference was postponed indefinitely due to epidemic restrictions. It was considered advisable to hold the conference remotely (online, in real time) on July 15-16, 2020 on the ZOOM remote platform of Shushi University of Technology. At the next meeting of the Organizing Committee, the agenda, program, participants, and other organizational issues related to the text of the announcement were discussed. The conference was organized by the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of the Artsakh Republic, the Institute of History of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia and the Culture-Future Foundation (Russia). The partners of the conference are the Artsakh Scientific Center, “Khachmeruk”, the public organization of sociological and political initiatives (Yerevan), the National Archives of Armenia, the “Kachar” Scientific Center (Artsakh),Orbeli Analytical Research Center (Yerevan), “Association of Friendship and Cooperation with Armenia” (Russia), and Shusha University of Technology.








Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of the Republic of Artsakh

Institute of History of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia

Foundation “Culture and Future” (Russia)


Scientific center of Artsakh

Public organization of sociological and political science initiatives “Crossroad” (“Khachmeruk”)

National Archive of the Republic of Armenia

Institute for Armenological Researches , Yerevan State University

Scientific center “Kachar” (Republic of Artsakh)

Analytical Research Center “Orbeli” (Armenia)

Russian society of friendship and cooperation with Armenia (Russia)

Shushi Technological University (Artsakh)

Organizing Committee

Lusine Karakhanyan – minister of Education, Science and Culture of the Republic of Artsakh

Yuri Suvaryan – academic secretary of the Department of armenology and social sciences of NAS RA

Ashot Melkonyan – director of the Institute of history of NAS RA

Aram Simonyan – corresponding member of NAS RA, director of the Institute for Armenian Studies of Yerevan State University

Melania Balayan – advisor to the minister of Education, Science and Culture of the Republic of Artsakh

Armen Marukyan – head of the Department of history of the Armenian Question and the Armenian Genocide, Institute of history of NAS RA

Stepan Dadayan – director of Artsakh science Center

Vagan Babakhanyan – chairman of the public organization of sociological and political science initiatives “Crossroad” (“Khachmeruk”) (Saint Petersburg)

Valery Avanesyan – vice-rector of the Artsakh State University

Mher Harutyunyan – head of the Scientific Center “Kachar”, Executive secretary of the Organizing Committee

Working languages of the Conference: Armenian, Russian, English



9.40 Registration of participants – password  2015

10:00 Exhibition “Shushi in Historical Photographs and Archival Documents” from the (National Archive of Armenia)

Opening of the Conference (Melania Balayan – advisor to the minister of Education, Science and Culture of the Republic of Artsakh)

Welcome words (up to 5 minutes):

1. Radik Martirosyan – president of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia

2. Lusine Karakhanyan – minister of Education, Science and Culture of the Republic of Artsakh

3. Address by the President of the Republic of Artsakh to the Conference participants

4. Yuri Suvaryan – academic secretary of the Department of Armenology and Social Sciences of NAS RA

5. Ashot Melkonyan – director of the Institute of History of NAS RA

6. Archbishop Pargev Martirosyan – Leader of the Artsakh Diocese of the Armenian Apostolic Church (blessing)

11:00 Break (10 minutes)



Aram Simonyan, corresponding member of NAS RA, director of the Institute for Armenian Studies of YSU – “The Destruction of Armenian Shushi: History and Lessons”

Valery Avanesyan, vice-rector for international cooperation, Ph.D. in History, professor of Artsakh State University – “International Relations in 1918-1920. and the Tragedy of Armenians in the City of Shushi: Lessons and Consequences”

Alexander Manasyan, corresponding member of NAS of Armenia, Ph.D. in Philosophy, professor – “Azerbaijan: history of disease” (formation of political genocidal behavior)

Vahram Balayan, Artsakh State University, Ph.D. in History, professor – “Demographic Processes in Shushi from the 19th Century to the Present Day”

Victor Nadein-Raevsky, Ph.D. in Philosophy, director of the Institute of Political and Social Studies of the Black Sea-Caspian region named after V.B. Artsruni, senior researcher of IMEMO RAS (Russia) – “Armenian Genocide in Shushi and Modern Geopolitics”

Victor Krivopuskov, president of the Russian Society for Friendship and Cooperation with Armenia, Ph.D. in Sociology, academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Honorary Doctor of the Yerevan State Linguistic University named after Valery Bryusov, Laureate of the Literary prize named after Boris Polevoy, Honorary member of the Writers Union of Armenia – “Sources of Mass Facts of Massacre, Pogroms, Genocide of Armenians in Nagorno Karabakh and Terrorism and Armeniaphobia in the Modern Politics of the Republic of Azerbaijan: Historical and Sociological Aspect”

12: 40-13: 00 Discussion

13: 00-14: 00 break





Chairmen: Armen Marukyan and Mher Harutyunyan

Gevorg Stepanyan, head of the Department of history of Armenian communities and Diaspora, Institute of History, National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Ph.D. in History, professor – “Causes and Stages of the Armenian Genocide in Eastern Transcaucasia”

Armen Marukyan, head of the Department of history of the Armenian Cause and the Armenian Genocide, Institute of History of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Ph.D. in History, professor – “Pogroms of Armenians of Shushi as a Manifestation of the Pan-Turkic Policy of the Armenian Genocide”

Ashot Harutyunyan, head of the Museum of history of Shushi – “Reasons For the Failure of Self-defense in the City of Shushi in the Interpretation of the Representative of the Government of the Republic of Armenia Arsen Mikayelyan”

Mher Harutyunyan, head of the “Kachar” Scientific Center, Candidate of Historical Sciences, associate professor – “Reasons for the March Armenocide of 1920. in Shushi and Modern Challenges (historical, political, legal and military aspects)”

Hamlet Harutyunyan, head of the Department of contemporary history, Institute of History of the NAS of RA, Ph.D. in History, professor – “The Shushi Massacre of Armenians (June 1919 and March 1920)”

Hamlet Gevorkyan, Ph.D. in Political Sciences, professor of Yerevan Polytechnic University – “The Shushi Massacre in 1920 and the Experience of Self-defense of the Armenian Population”

14:35-14:50 Discussion

14:50-15:00 Break




Chairmen: Amatuni Virabyan and Gevorg Stepanyan

Ashot Melkonyan, director of the Institute of History of the NAS RA, academician of the NAS RA, Ph.D. in History, professor – “Reflection of the Pogroms of Armenians in Azerbaijan in the Book of Zeynal Ibragimov”

Amatuni Virabyan, Ph.D. in History, professor, director of the National Archive of Armenia – “Events in Nagorno-Karabakh According to the Testimony of Governor General H. Sultanov”

Larisa Alaverdyan, human rights activist, first ombudsman of Armenia – “Genocide of the Armenians of the East Transcaucasia: Succession and Inheritance of Azerbaijan” 

Aelita Dolukhanyan, corresponding member of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Honored Worker of Culture of the Republic of Armenia, Ph.D. in Philology, professor – “Falsification of Historical and Literary Facts by Azerbaijani Scientists According to Historian Asatur Mnatsakanyan”

Stepan Dadayan, director of Artsakh Scientific Center, Ph.D. in History, professor – “On the Issue of Penetration of the Turkic Element into the Shushi Fortress”

Armine Khatchatryan, Artsakh State university, Ph.D. in History, associate professor – “Azerbaijan Falsifications of the History of Artsakh 1918-1920. from the Position of Pan-Turkism”

Nune Sarumyan, Artsakh State university, Ph.D. in History, associate professor – “March Crime in Shushi of 1920 in the Context of Internal Political and Foreign Political Processes”

Ovik Avanesov, scientific researcher in Caucasus Studies Center after Mesrop Mashtots – “Falsification of Key issues of the Artsakh events of 1918-1920 in Azerbaijani Historiography”

16:30-16:50 Discussion

16:50-17:00 Break




Chairpersons: Anna Asatryan and Vrezh Harutyunyan

Artak Gulyan, senior researcher at Institute of Arts of NAS RA, Ph.D. in Architecture – “Architecture of the city of Shushi”

Aram Khatchaturyan, head of the information and analytical site, executive secretary of the Coordinating Council of Russian-Armenian Organizations (Russia) – “Historical and Cultural Monuments of Artsakh and Nakhichevan as victims of Vandalism Committed by Azerbaijan”

Vrej Harutyunyan, Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of the Republic of Artsakh, Ph.D. in History – “Cultural and Educational Activities of Charitable Organizations of the City of Shushi in the late 19th – early 20th Centuries” 

Anna Asatryan, deputy director, Institute of Arts of NAS RA, Ph.D. in Arts, professor – “Musical Life in Shushi”

Grigor Ordoyan, Yerevan State Institute of Theater and Cinema, Ph.D. in Arts – “The development and Decline of the Khandamiryan Theater of Shushi”

Marine Harutyunyan, senior researcher of Institute of History of NAS RA, Ph.D. in History – “Saved Manuscripts of the late 18th – first half of the 20th Century from the Destruction of Cultural Property in Shushi”

18:00-18:20 Discussion





Chairpersons: Edik Minasyan and Mariam Avagyan

Edik Minasyan, Ph.D. in History, professor, Dean of the History Department of Yerevan State University – “Armenian Genocide in Azerbaijan in 1988-1990”

Arthur Petrosyan, publicist, public figure (Paris, France) – “The Shushi Massacre is a Bloody Episode of the 100-year-old Armenian Genocide” 

Hrayr Ulubabyan, publicist, public figure (Armenia) – “Armenian Genocide in Azerbaijan and Pan-Turanism”

Mariam Avagyan, coordinator of the Congress of Armenian Refugees from the Azerbaijani SSR – “Crimes Committed Against Citizens of Armenian Nationality in Azerbaijan SSR in 1987-1992 Represent a Stage of the Uninterrupted 130-year Genocide”

Levon Beklaryan, Ph.D. in Philosophy, professor, academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences (Moscow) “Events in Shushi as a Continuation of Ethnic Cleansing in Eastern Armenia”

10:40-11:00 Discussion





Chairwomen: Tehmina Marutyan and Melania Balayan

Lusine Karakhanyan,  Ph.D. in Pedagogy, associate professor, Minister of Education, Science and Culture of the Artsakh Republic – “Negative Stereotypes in the Work of ’Phaeton Driver’  by Osip Mandelstam”  

Radik Khamoyan, public figure (Armenia) “Stable Peace in Transcaucasia and Throughout the Middle East Cannot Be Achieved Without the Treaty of Sevres and the Arbitration Award of Woodrow Wilson”

Yulia Harutyunyan, senior researcher, “Kachar” Research Center – “The Subject of the Tragic Fate of Shushi in Russian literature”

Tehmina Marutyan, prorector at Goris State University,  Ph.D., associate professor, – “ The Reflection of Shushi Armenian Massacre of 1920 in the Newspaper “Mshak”

Mher Harutyunyan, Ph.D. in History, associate professor, Nane Harutyunyan, student of Artsakh State University – “The Theme of Pogroms of Armenians in Shushi in Armenian Periodicals”

Melania Balayan, Ph.D. in History, associate professor – “Violence Against the Armenian Apostolic Church in Shushi in 1920”

12:00-12:20 Discussion

12:20-14:00 Break




Chairmen: Alexandr Minasyan and Vahan Babakhanyan

Martik Gasparyan, head of the International Independent Legal and Scientific Center of Evaluation and Expertise for Reparations and Restitutions, member of the Scientific Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of economics, professor, academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Russian Academy of Arts, European Academy «EWAN», professor – “Challenges and threats to modern civilization, a century-old genocidal policy of destroying the cultural heritage (culturocide) of Armenians and other autochthonous peoples by Musavatists, Young Turks, Caucasian Tatars (Turks) – newly formed Azerbaijanis with the Bolsheviks”

Garen Arevian, blogger, public figure (United Kingdom) – «Changing and Maintaining the Correct Narrative in the Face of Historical Revisionism»

Armen Ter-Sarkisyan, president of the Armenian International information-analytical, cultural, educational and legal center “ARMINFOCENTER” (Moscow) – “The Issue of the Borders Between Armenia-Artsakh and the Republic of Azerbaijan in 1920 and the International Community”

Aram Sargsyan, chairman of the Organizing Committee “In Defense of the Nagorno Karabakh Republic (Republic of Artsakh)” (Armenia) – «Overcoming the Consequences of the Armenian Genocide»

Narek Abrahamian, retired General (Lebanon) – “Indigenous Peoples of the Middle East as an Important and Main factor of Peace in the Region”

Tigran Pashabezyan, member of the Board of the French Agency “Lusavor Avetis” (Yerevan) – “The Strategy of Recognition and Condemnation of the Armenian Genocide and Compensation for it in the Light of the UN Conventions on Dec 12,1948 and Nov 26, 1968”

Ruben Kirakosyan, lawyer, chairman of the Russian-Armenian Association of lawyers ARMROSS (Moscow) – “Coordination of Refugees and Refugee Organizations as Exclusive Entities for the Formation of Legal Claims Against the Republic of Azerbaijan”

Zohrab Gabrielyan, lawyer, member of the International Bar Association of St. Petersburg (Russia) – “Qualification of the Crimes of Azerbaijan as Genocide Using International Legal Mechanisms to Hold the State of Azerbaijan Accountable”

Vahan Babakhanyan, «Armenian Genocide in Azerbaijan» and «Miaban» information portals, “Khachmeruk” (Crossroad) public organization of sociological and political science initiatives, member of the Coordinating Council of Russian-Armenian organizations (St. Petersburg, Russia) – “Practical Measures for International Condemnation and Prevention of Crimes of Genocide by Azerbaijan”

Ashot Shahsuvaryan, chairman of the Russian-Armenian non-governmental Center for legal assistance (Armenia) – “The Problem of Combining the Efforts of Lawyers Around the Issue of Rreventing Relapse of the Crimes of Genocide”

Tatyana Minasyan, public activist, member of the “Congress of Armenian refugees from the Azerbaijani SSR (Armenia) – «The Problems of Preserving the Historical Memory of the Young Generation (on the Example of the Armenian Community of Banants Village)»

Matsak Poladyan, public figure (France) – “Problems and Immediate Tasks of the Trinity of Armenia-Artsakh-Diaspora and the Armenians of the Middle East”

Grigory Ayvazyan, Ph.D. in History, researcher at the Institute of Archeology and Ethnography of NAS RA, chairman of the NGP “Assembly of Azerbaijanian Armenians” (Armenia) – “About the Process of Official Recognition of the Armenian Genocide by Armenia in Azerbaijan in 1988-1992″

Armenak Armandayan, head of “Lusavor Avetis” Information Agency (France) – “Problems of the Return to Their National Roots of Refugees who are Estranged from National Identity”

17:00-17:20 Discussion

17:20 Adoption of the Resolution (Statement) of the Conference

18:00 Summing up the online conference


June 21 is the day of remembrance of the hero of Artsakh Leonid Azgaldyan.

People remember and honor their hero, and, first of all, it is necessary for us, the survivors, to enlighten our future path and inspire today’s youth. On the occasion of the day, we tried to find out the opinion of the head of the “Kachar” scientific center Mher Harutyunyan about the generalization of the social experience of the recent past, the targeted orientation of young people with the characters of our heroes and other important issues.


– The challenges of Armenian statehood prompt systematic improvement of the nationwide cause of ideological sub-motivation and motivation of future defenders of the homeland. Therefore, the promotion of military-patriotic education of youth at the state level can be a good springboard. In this popular and very important process, the popularization of the characters of national heroes and the education of students with these noble looks is of great importance.

Throughout its history, the Armenian people did not lack heroes, thanks to which they withstood the cruel ordeals of millennia …


Life shows that the new generation is basically ready to continue the work of the elders, to double and surpass them in feats of arms. We especially encourage the desire of young people to pay tribute to the heroic deeds of heroes, the desire to be guided by the ideas of the “great dead” and a personal example in everyday life. One of the best ways to educate and educate the younger generation on the example of modern heroes is to make this or that brave ideal for imitation.



Leonid Azgaldyan is such an ideal, an inexhaustible source of inspiration and lifestyle for students of secondary schools and military schools (cadets).





Recorded by Nane Harutyunyan




The village of Sos, Martuni district has a rich history with heroic episodes. During the Artsakh war, the villagers contributed to the repulsion of Azerbaijani aggression and the expulsion of the cruel enemy from our country. Karlen Hakobyan recorded their dedicated struggle and combat path. We were pleasantly surprised to see the memoirs of the Sos community branch chairman of the Union of Liberation Warriors and an active participant in military events, because it is hard to imagine how Karlen Hakobyan, in short breaks between heavy battles, found the strength to make notes on the basis of which really remarkable memoirs were born for passing them to descendants. They are written in simple and everyday language, based on rich facts with interesting details, which gives readers an idea of ​​the incredible devotion and courage, determination and sense of purpose of an Armenian freedom fighter, the one who has taken up an arm to defend his homeland. It is thanks to these qualities that our people were able to defeat the enemy, much superior in numbers and by technical equipment.

The April 2016 military escalation unblocked a new arena for the manifestation of these qualities. This time, the young generation, following the example of their fathers, courageously fought against the approaching enemy and heroically defended the borders of their homeland. Obviously, besides the genetic descent of the Motherland defenders qualities inherited from their ancestors, military servicemen received an effective and targeted military-patriotic education in our society. These memories having many exemplary episodes are also useful for this extremely important sphere, and each reader can find a winning formula for himself.

The author of memoirs has participated in the Artsakh movement since 1987. He is one of the activists of the preparatory phase of the national struggle. On his initiative, a proposal for reunification with Mother Armenia was included in the agenda of the joint public meeting of the villages Sos and Machkalashen. He maintained contact with subterranean leaders of the Artsakh movement, activists of the Armenian SSR and NKAO. Karlen Hakobyan is one of the initiators for organizing the self-defense movement in his village.                                                                                                                                In May 1992, he voluntarily entered the ranks of the Artsakh Self-Defense Forces, namely the Sos detachment, then in the battalion ranks he participated in all battles of the Amaras valley, in the battle for Khazazasar, in the liberation of Nerkin Divanallar, where he was wounded. As part of a volunteer group, he went to Martakert district, where from August 26 to September 4, 1992 he took part in the defense of the villages Mehman, Chldran, Drmbon, and then returned to Martuni to repel the tank attack launched by the enemy on September 6-7. In August 1993, he participated in the APCs -2 landing force in the suppression of Yaglavend firing points, and was wounded again during the battle.He took part in hostilities in the Fizuli region, including Horadiz.

In March 1994, he was appointed a commander of heavy weapons company. Due to family circumstances, Senior Lieutenant K. Hakobyan was sent to another unit in November of the same year and was on combat duty in the Martuni Defensive Region until 1996 as a professional soldier. In 1996 he was demobilized from the ranks of the Defense Army.

He was awarded the NKR medals “For Courage”, “Defender of the Fatherland”, etc.

Publishing valuable memoirs of K. Hakobyan, we present the example of Sos brave sons and other villages of the Amaras valley to young soldiers of the Defense Army bringing combat duty to younger generations who will keep the commandments and combat traditions of elders, who will write new brilliant pages in the annals of Armenian military art and army development.

In the memoirs of K. Hakobyan, many seemingly hopeless situations are described, but even when the bullets are finished and the ranks of defenders of the defensive lines are extremely weakened, a bunch of brave people beats the enemy  vastly exceeding in human and material resources and forces him to leave the battlefield.

The main weapon of the Armenian fighter for freedom and his superiority is spiritual will, a firm faith in his own power and justice of the common case, whose roots go back centuries to his native land. The secret of success is maintaining constantly a national image and devotion to enduring values.    Having started the full publication of memoirs, we tried to preserve the author’s style and spirit of the times, a true story and even the inevitable cruel images in a military situation.

The memoirs are distinguished by their straightforwardness, rich factual base, interesting details that give the reader an opportunity to get an idea of ​​the Armenian fighter for freedom during hard war years, the incredible dedication and courage of an Armenian who took up the arm to defend his homeland, determination and focus on victory.

A couple of years ago, K. Hakobyan took up this business with a single goal – to pay tribute to his fellow soldiers for the accomplished feats, for devotion and patriotism.

These memoirs are designed to perpetuate all the heroes who, at the cost of their own lives, defended homeland and expelled the invaders from our country, freed the wreckage of their historical homeland, having expelled constant danger from our peaceful settlements.

These memoirs are a kind of epic both about freedom fighters and all the best sons and daughters of Armenians, who served as a reliable rear for the fighting sons, withstood all the disasters and trials of war. At the most crucial moment, they did not lose their courage of spirit and thereby contributed to its victory.

These memoirs are also a unique message to young and future generations – to preserve sacredly and defend their homeland, follow the elders’ example, equip their native places and pass on the lessons of patriotism from generation to generation.

Many thanks to the sons of Aram Balayan – Andrei, Anatoly, Ararat, Artik and Aleksan, as well as my relative – Arsen Hayrapetyan for financing an issue of book “Eagles of Sos”.

Aram Balayan was a famous teacher of physical education in our republic. When the Artsakh movement began, he became one of its active participants and leaders from the Sos community.

On the night of September 10, 1991, during the defense of Amaras, riot police arrested him and took him to the Bail prison in Baku. He has been tortured in the Baku torture-chambers for a year, after which, together with eight friends, he has been sentenced to imprisonment in Tbilisi.                           Soon after, he and other courageous people were taken to a Yerevan prison, where they were released due to the lack of corpus delicti.

Today, the sport complex at the Sos school is named after Aram Balayan. And his sons are engaged in charity work for the prosperity of both the school and the Sos community, helping the needy villagers.